It discuses how the disease originated and how Europeans brought the disease into the United States.
First dose at 12 months, second dose at least 6 months thereafter Challenges and Concessions While school vaccination requirements have been credited with bringing about the control and elimination of many devastating childhood diseases, critics have continued to voice concerns and raise legal and political challenges to the entire process of mandatory vaccination.
Personal Liberty Concerns One key argument against mandatory school vaccination has always focused on government intrusion into what is considered a personal medical choice. From a legal standpoint, Jacobson still seems to have settled the issue that at least under some circumstances, the government may force an individual to receive a vaccination.
Although public health officials have the legal authority to mandate vaccination for the public health under Jacobson, they should be very mindful of the personal liberty concerns just stated. Those with such views often cling to them vigorously.
For this reason, it is important for public health officials to support their mandatory vaccination programs with justifiable arguments rather than simply citing legal precedent or historical tradition in support of their exercise of power.
Fortunately for public health officials, the benefits provided by vaccination programs can be utilized to justify the existence of such programs. Safety Accountability Concerns A variation on the consumer choice challenge to mandatory school vaccination requirements tends to accuse the public health community of conspiring with or at least willfully acquiescing to powerful vaccine manufacturers at the expense of citizens.
Given the historical success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox and in reducing or eliminating the risk of other childhood diseases, any critique of mandatory vaccination programs that focuses on the use of vaccines generally is likely to be dismissed by those in the field of public health.
By focusing on the economic drawbacks inherent in a mandatory vaccination program and how those drawbacks can negatively affect the quality of vaccines, this argument may gain more traction.
Indeed, all sides of this debate claim to desire both safer and more effective vaccines. Because vaccination programs depend on a sufficient percentage of the community being vaccinated, complete consumer choice carries with it problems that might be absent in a standard market.
As for vaccine quality, FDA regulation Vaccination impact throughout history essay in place to ensure a sufficient level of safety and efficacy to accomplish the goals of vaccination.
If not, the answer should be to raise FDA standards, rather than to jettison the entire mandatory vaccination process and with it the likelihood of maintaining a sufficient level of immunity among the population.
This response might be unacceptable to those concerned. If the connection between public health officials entrusted with implementing the mandatory vaccination schedule and FDA regulators entrusted with ensuring the safety and efficacy of vaccines is seen as too close, proposing higher FDA standards as a solution may not allay concerns.
The independence and integrity of FDA is therefore critical in this arena, just as it is in other areas of public health. Concern of Unknown Risks In what may be a combination of the two challenges previously discussed, many individuals challenge vaccine programs because of a lack of information about vaccines.
As with the other objections to mandatory vaccination, however, this objection suffers from a critical flaw. Mandatory school vaccination requirements are not justified solely on the benefit they provide to the recipient.
Instead, it is the benefit they provide to the community as a whole by ensuring a sufficient level of vaccination to prevent outbreak that justifies their intrusive nature on individual medical decision-making.
A better critique of these programs would focus on whether mandatory vaccination causes more overall harm than a voluntary system; that is, is it better when viewed at the general, rather than the individual, level?
Ironically, the very success of vaccination programs in reducing the incidence of once-prominent diseases has led some to ignore the overall and continuing benefit of community vaccination herd immunity. Other Concerns Other challenges to vaccination laws have cited strongly held religious or philosophical positions against vaccination in general.
Such challenges require a different type of response from public health officials; often the options are limited to overriding such objections and excluding children of parents adhering to such positions from public schools which is constitutionally permissible under Jacobson and its progeny or creating exemptions to vaccination requirements which is detrimental to the overall goals of mandatory vaccination if a sufficient number of exemptors exist.
Reactions to such religious and philosophical concerns vary from state to state, with a general trend toward greater accommodation of objectors.
Exemptions In response to these and other challenges to mandatory vaccination laws, states have enacted various exemptions to vaccination requirements for school entry. Actual enforcement varies by state.
Medical All states provide exemptions for those with medical risks associated with vaccines. Such exemptions reflect the sometimes uneasy balance between mandatory vaccination programs and First Amendment Free Exercise rights, even though the Supreme Court has validated the right of states to mandate vaccination without providing for such exemptions.
Rather than decrease the number of religious exemptors, however, this may actually lead to more religious exemptors. The political climate of our day, along with the experience of a few states already such as Arkansassuggests that legislatures may respond to invalidation of religious exemption statutes that require adherence to an organized religion by drafting more general and expansive religious exemption statutes.
In some states, people may avoid vaccination requirements by way of philosophical exemptions. If all else fails and vaccination is still regarded as unacceptable to the parent, the option of home schooling may provide a final avenue of evading these school vaccination requirements.
Dangers of Widespread Exemptions The ease with which non-medical exemptions can typically be obtained has raised concerns among many that the benefits of widespread immunization are being compromised. Herd immunity can be attained, and protection is ensured for both the vaccinated majority and the unvaccinated few.
Recent studies have shown that clusters of exemptors, who are significantly more susceptible to contracting vaccine preventable illnesses, pose an increased risk of spread of diseases not only to their unimmunized peers, but also to the surrounding, largely vaccinated population.
As the mumps outbreak in Iowa makes clear, however, vaccination programs take time and are at risk if vaccination rates fall. Other diseases are still prevalent in other parts of the world, and outbreaks can still occur in this country due to the prevalence of international travel.
Ever though measles is rarely observed in the US, for example, the World Health Organization has reported that nearlymeasles-related deaths occurred in developing countries in Because many of the aforementioned risks are frequently underappreciated by those who seek exemptions, some have suggested a combination of stricter enforcement of exemption requirements and increased public knowledge of the reasons underlying childhood vaccination requirements.
The easier it is to obtain an exemption, the less likely individuals are to understand and appreciate the importance of widespread participation to the success of a vaccination program. Greater public appreciation of the need for such participation even for diseases that seem to be in retreatalong with greater information on the safety of vaccines can go a long way toward increasing public health in this area.History of antibiotics can be described in two segments early history and modern history.
Most important is the discovery of pencillin by Alexander Fleming. This article is a part of the guide. History of Vaccine Safety. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. On This Page the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a change in the vaccination schedule to include sequential administration of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio The importance of vaccine safety will continue to grow throughout.
Nov 28, · Throughout history, outbursts of smallpox broke out in various parts of the globe. The smallpox contagion was also played a decisive role in the colonization of the Americas. In the 15th century, European explorers acted as the unwitting carriers of smallpox to the New orld.
Vaccination Impact Throughout History Essay Although, vaccinations have been around for a long time, the great controversy surrounding the uses were substantially less when first accepted.
Over time, vaccines have been created for diseases such as polio, small pox, chicken pox, the common flu; as well as being improved and continually updated. The history of vaccination. Vaccination is a miracle of modern medicine.
In the past 50 years, it's saved more lives worldwide than any other medical product or procedure. Essay on Vaccination. idea of compulsory vaccination and to consider the appropriateness of TV program format for such issues as well as the impact of this video on personal viewpoint regarding vaccination.
and health professionals should carefully study genetic history and reactions of kids before vaccinating them. Currently all.